A marketing term used extensively by HP. An adaptive enterprise
matches supply and demand of IT resources in real time, so the business
can quickly manage and capitalize on change. An adaptive enterprise
can synchronize its IT resources with the demands of its business
environment; similar to IBM's On-Demand Business.
The replacement of manual operations by computerized methods. Automation
can both improve efficiency and reduce errors brought on by manual
Automatic responses to unpredictable events. The term, used extensively
by IBM, refers to the capability of computer systems and networks
to configure themselves to changing conditions and heal themselves
in the event of failure. Autonomy implies that less human intervention
is required for operation under such conditions.
A computing system that includes processors and memory on a single
board, but where other resources such as power, cooling, network
access, and storage services are shared. Blades are designed to
be easily installed and removed and are typically smaller than rack-optimized
Capacity on Demand
Processing power that is available as needed in a timely manner
without disrupting other business priorities. Capacity on demand
frequently involves additional capacity installed but not available
for use until needed.
Connecting two or more computers together in such a way that they
appear to be a single computing resource. Clustering is used for
parallel processing, load balancing, and fault tolerance; a popular
strategy for implementing grid computing, since it is relatively
easy to add new CPUs simply by adding a new server or blade to the
overall cluster. Clusters are typically transparent to users and
A very high-speed connection allowing server nodes in a cluster
One of the three steps recommended by AvarSYS to help data centers
move to a Grid Computing architecture. By consolidating resources
such as servers, storage, network, and data, a company can reduce
overall data center management costs while simplifying provisioning
of the overall capacity for various business drivers.
A facility that provides a suitable environment (power, cooling,
network connectivity, management services) for housing information
technology equipment (servers, storage) and providing IT services
and support to customers.
Making data available when and where it's needed and as it becomes
Enterprise Grid Alliance (EGA)
The Enterprise Grid Alliance is a consortium of leading vendors
including AvarSYS and customers focused on developing Enterprise
Grid solutions. The EGA, an open, independent, vendor-neutral organization,
was formed in order to identify obstacles facing enterprises in
adopting grid technologies, and to promote open, interoperable solutions
to these problems.
A high-speed transport technology used to build Storage Area Networks
(SAN). The Fibre Channel Protocol serializes SC SI commands into
Fibre Channel frames. Although Fibre Channel can be used as a general-purpose
network carrying ATM, IP, and other protocols, it has been primarily
used for transporting SCSI traffic from servers to disk arrays.
Fibre Channel supports single mode and multimode fiber connections
as well as coaxial cable and twisted pair. www.fibrechannel.org
Gigabit and 10-Gigabit Ethernet
An Ethernet technology that raises transmission speed to either
1 or 10GBp s and is compatible with existing Ethernet networks.
Gigabit Ethernet is being deployed in large numbers in both corporate
and public data networks, and an even faster 10-Gigabit Ethernet
standard is nearing completion.
Global Grid Forum
The standards body for defining standard specifications for global
A group that conducts research and development for academic grids.
The alliance, creators of the Globus Toolkit, is based at Argonne
National Laboratory, the University of Southern California Information
Sciences Institute, the University of Chicago, the University of
Edinburgh, and the Swedish Center for Parallel Computers. www.globus.org.
A kit designed to provide a set of tools based on standard grid
APIs developed by the Global Grid Forum. Its latest development
version, GT3, is based on standards currently being drafted by the
Global Grid Forum.
An enterprise's computational resources-servers, networks, storage,
and information-acting together to create one or more large pools
of computing resources. A grid can be dynamically provisioned on
demand to various enterprise applications and users, allowing enterprises
to dynamically align their IT resources to their business needs.
The use of a grid to provide computing resources, analogous to an
electric utility. On the client-side, grid computing provides shared
resources, allowing complete transparency in where and how a task
is performed. On the server side, grid computing allows enterprises
to provision resources to respond to client requests.
Both an I/O architecture and a specification for the transmission
of data between processors and I/O devices, which has been gradually
replacing the PCI bus in high-end servers and PCs. Instead of sending
data in parallel, InfiniBand sends data in serial, can carry multiple
channels of data, and can carry multiple channels of data at the
same time in a multiplexing signal. www.infinibandta.org.
LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol)
A protocol used to access information directories. LDAP is designed
to provide a common method for searching e-mail addresses on the
Internet. LDAP will make it possible for almost any application
running on virtually any computer platform to obtain directory information,
such as e-mail addresses and public keys.
Sun's architecture for the next -generation data center. The architecture
is designed to make the entire data center behave as a single, unified
system. N1 is designed to reduce management complexity and cost;
increase data center resource utilization, improve infrastructure
responsiveness and agility, and ensure investment protection.
NAS (Network-Attached Storage)
A server dedicated to standard file sharing. NAS allows more hard-disk
storage space to be added to a network that already utilizes servers
without shutting it down for maintenance and upgrades. NAS does
not provide e-mail, authentication, or file management.
A network processing location. A node can be a computer, a set of
clustered blades, or some other device, such as a printer. Every
node has a unique network address, sometimes called a Data Link
Control address or a Media Access Control address.
On Demand Business
IBM marketing term that denotes a company whose business processes-integrated
end-to-end across the company and with key partners, suppliers and
customers-can respond with flexibility and speed to any customer
demand, opportunity, or external threat. On-demand businesses are
responsive, variable, focused and resilient.
Combining separate resources into a single logical group. Provisioning,
providing or allocating the requested resource.
RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks)
A method of accessing multiple individual disks as if the array
were one larger disk, spreading data access out over these multiple
disks. RAID improves access time and reduces the risk of losing
all data if one drive fails.
Any component in a computer or network used to perform a specific
computing task (storage, servers, data, database server, application
SAN (Storage Area Network)
A high-speed sub-network of shared storage devices. In large enterprises,
a SAN connects multiple servers to a centralized pool of disk storage.
Compared to managing hundreds of servers, each with their own disks,
SANs reduce system administration overhead. By treating all the
company's storage as a single resource, disk maintenance and routine
backups are easier to schedule and control. In some SANs, the disks
themselves can copy data to other disks for backup without any processing
overhead at the host computers.
A computer resource in a network that is shared by multiple users.
The term can refer either to a specific piece of hardware or a software
process, such as "database server" or "Web server."
Software-based servers with large user populations typically run
on their own dedicated hardware. Server provisioning the allocation
of servers for use for application software and users.
SLA (Service Level Agreement)
The agreement between representatives of a customer's internet data
center and the service provider to determine the type, capacity,
and quality of service. SLAs are used by vendors and customers as
well as internally by IT shops and their end users. They can specify
bandwidth availability, response times for routine and ad hoc queries,
response time for problem resolution (network down, machine failure,
etc.), and steps to be taken in the event of problems with penalties
SMP (Symmetric Multiprocessing)
A computer architecture that utilizes multiple CPUs to complete
individual processes simultaneously. Any idle processor can be assigned
any task, and additional CPUs can be added to improve performance
and handle increased loads.
Installing, configuring, and making software available for applications
The allocation of storage for use for applications (including databases)
A pay-as-you-go model of computing. Instead of paying for computer
resources to handle the peak load at all times, you pay only for
the computing you use; metaphorical reference to electric utilities.
Utility Data Center
An infrastructure solution proposed by HP that allows virtualization
of computing resources for the data center. The Utility Data Center
includes servers, storage, and networking products that are integrated
and deployed by intelligent management software that allows them
to be shared and dynamically re-provisioned to accommodate changing
Allows interacting with a resource using an abstract mechanism so
that the underlying physical resource can be replaced with another
one of similar capability without affecting the resource consumer.
Virtualization balances supply and demand by providing a transparent,
aggregated computing resource.
VPN (Virtual Private Network)
A private network that is configured within a public network in
order to take advantage of the economies of scale and management
facilities of large networks. VPNs are widely used by enterprises
to create Wide Area Networks that span large geographic areas, to
provide site-to-site connections to branch offices and to allow
mobile users to dial up their company LANs.
Web-based applications that dynamically interact with other Web
applications using open standards that include XML, WSDL, UDDI,
Distributing the workload across multiple systems to optimize system
usage and response time for the user.